We have a new paper out in Evolution about the effects of altitude and life history on wing size and shape in Heliconius butterflies. Work done by PhD student Gabriela Montejo‐Kovacevich, and former Masters student Jennifer Smith, shows that species found higher up the slopes of the Andes tend to have larger and rounder wings. We also found that in species with gregarious larvae females were larger than males, while the opposite was the case for species with solitary larvae. This is the first publication from our NERC funded project on adaptation to altitude in tropical insects.
Congratulations to Mel Brien who submitted her PhD thesis in August, just in time to go and present her work at the ESEB Congress in Turku, Finland.
We have a new paper out in the Journal of the Royal Society, Interface Focus, as part of a special issue on structural colour. Mel has used the variation in iridescent blue colour that we see in crosses between blue and black subspecies of Heliconius erato, to investigate the genetics of this trait. She shows that it is controlled by multiple genes, one or more of which are located on the Z sex-chromosome. Juan also investigates how one aspect of scale structure (ridge spacing) varies in these crosses. He shows that closer ridge spacing produces brighter blue colour, and that this trait also appears to be controlled by several genes. This is the first investigation of the genetics of structural colour in Heliconius. In fact, very little is known about the genetic control of structural colour in any animal. We plan to follow up this work by investigating the molecular genetics of structural colour production in these butterflies.
Congratulations to Emma who successfully defended her thesis at the end of November. Mel made this amazing hybrid zone cake to celebrate. It (very accurately) shows the hybrid zone that Emma worked on for her thesis, where the butterflies go from being black (in the north) to blue (in the south).
Congratulations to Emma Curran who submitted her PhD thesis last week!
Next week the university is hosting the Festival of the Mind a collaboration between our academic colleagues and experts from Sheffield’s cultural and creative industries.
We have been working with artist Sarah Jane Palmer to create artwork telling the story of some our research. this will be on display in the millennium gallery from Thursday 20 – Thursday 27 September as part of the Futurecade. Sarah will also be giving a talk at 4pm on 20 September, with a question and answer session with Nicola.
We have recently been awarded a NERC grant to investigate adaptation to altitude in Heliconius butterflies. The project is in collaboration with Chris Jiggins at the University of Cambridge, Marjo Saastamoinen at the University of Helsinki and Caroline Bacquet at IKIAM University in Ecuador.
We are currently advertising two positions on this grant:
A 3-year postdoc position. This will It will involve intensive rearing and phenotyping of butterflies to characterize both inter- and intra-specific differences in thermal adaptation at different altitudes in the Andes. This will be followed by generation and analysis of high-throughput genomic data to identify underlying genetic differences. The rearing and phenotyping will be conducted in Ecuador, therefore you will be expected to spend significant amounts of time working in Ecuador with partner organisations. You will have a strong commitment to evolutionary research with skills in at least one of:
analysis of large genomic data sets; analysis of quantitative trait variation; or insect ecophysiology. Being able to communicate in Spanish would also be an advantage.You will hold a PhD or equivalent experience in evolutionary biology and will have experience of research in evolutionary genetics and analysing large data sets.
A 2-year graduate research assistant position. This will involve assisting the postdoc, primarily with rearing and phenotyping of butterflies to characterize both inter- and intraspecific differences in thermal adaptation at different altitudes in the Andes. The rearing and phenotyping will be conducted in Ecuador, therefore you will be expected to spend significant amounts of time working in Ecuador. You will have an interest and enthusiasm for evolutionary research with good attention to detail and experience of accurate collection and handling of data. You will have a good honours degree or equivalent experience in a biological discipline and experience of recording and checking numerical data in a research context. You will have an enthusiasm for evolutionary/ ecological/ entomological research and experience of rearing insects. Being able to communicate in Spanish would also be an advantage.
The closing date for applications for both positions is the 18th of June 2018. The starting dates for both positions are around the 1st of September 2018, but there may be some flexibility. Contact Nicola for further information or informal enquiries about either position.
Our paper describing the structures responsible for producing iridescent blue colour in five species of Heliconius butterfly is out in print today in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
Heliconius, also know as Passion-vine butterflies, from rainforests in Ecuador have bright wing colours to warn predators that they are toxic. Different species have evolved similar colours, helping predators learn to avoid them. Some of their colours are iridescent, changing with angle. These colours are produced, not by light absorbing pigments, but by nano-structures. Colours of this type are known as structural colours.
In our paper we have identified the nano-structures that produce these colours: layered ridges on hairs-width-sized scales covering the wing, which cause constructive interference of blue light.
Similar structures are used by different species, but the colour and brightness of the species differs because of slight differences in the nano-structural features. It seems that some features can evolve faster than others, suggesting that these are more easily modified. There are noticeable differences, particularly in brightness, between the mimetic species pairs, H. erato cyrbia, H. melpomene cythera and H. eleuchia, H. cydno. These differences in brightness come from features of the ridges, including how flat they are and how many layers are present, as well as how densely packed the ridges are on the scale. We find that the packing of the ridges appears to evolve relatively quickly and is fairly similar between co-mimics, while the features of the ridges themselves appear to evolve more slowly, explaining the lack of perfect mimicry.
The project was a collaborative effort with colleagues in the Physics Department, in particular Andrew Parnell, as well as using data we collected at the ESRF, and with key input from Pete Vukusic in Exeter. The butterflies were collected in and around the Mashpi Reserve in Ecuador, providing a unique ecological viewpoint by allowing us to investigate butterflies from the same community.
Interested in applying for independent funding to come and work on structural colour evolution, genetics or development (or anything aligned to our research interests)?
The Leverhulme Trust annually supports a number of Early Career Fellowships (https://www.leverhulme.ac.uk/funding/grant-schemes/early-career-fellowships).
The 2018 round opens on 1 January 2018. The closing date for applications is 1 March 2018
The scheme is aimed at those who are at a relatively early stage of their academic careers but with a proven record of research. Applications are invited from those with a doctorate who had their doctoral viva not more than four years from the application closing date. Hence those who had their viva before 1 March 2014 are not eligible unless they have since had a career break.
The Trust will contribute 50% of each Fellow’s total salary costs up to a maximum of £25,000 per annum with the balance to be paid by the host institution. Each fellow may also request annual research expenses of up to £6,000 to further their research activities. Due to the financial commitment that the University has to make, there will be an internal competition to identify applicants whom the department/faculty will support.
The internal deadline for APS applications is 5pm Friday 1st December.
Each dept in the Faculty of Science can submit 1 person to Faculty for potential support. The Faculty will then select which candidate(s) to support. So, there is a three-step process (a) selection by APS followed by (b) selection by Faculty (c) submitting application to the leverhulme.
If you are interested in apply for one of these to come and work with me please get in touch! I would be particularly interested in anyone with an interest in working on the evolution, genetics or development of structural colours, but could support any candidates with a strong CV and interests that overlap with mine.
We are seeking an enthusiastic student with interests in evolution, developmental biology and/or biophysics to work on a project investigating the developmental mechanisms controlling iridescent structural colouration in Heliconius butterflies. Iridescent colour in these butterflies is produced by coherent scattering of light by sub-micron scale structures. Structural colours are some of the brightest and most impressive in nature, yet almost nothing is known about how these very precise structures are controlled during the development of the butterfly wing scale.
The Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system to investigate this process because they are very diverse in their wing colours and patterns, including a small number of species that exhibit iridescent blue/green. Comparing developmental processes between butterflies with and without iridescence can help us to understand how iridescence is produced and the evolutionary changes involved. The project would build on genetic work being done in the lab, identifying genes controlling differences in iridescence, by investigating how these genes control scale structure formation.
The project can be tailored to the interests of the student but could include a range of cutting-edge techniques including fluorescence confocal microscopy, super-resolution microscopy, electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. It could also involve bioinformatic analysis of high-throughput sequence data, to investigate gene expression.
Contact Nicola for further information about the project.
If successful, the student would be fully funded for a minimum of 3.5 years, studentships cover: (i) a tax-free stipend at the standard Research Council rate (at least £14,553 per annum for 2018-2019), (ii) research costs, and (iii) tuition fees at the UK/EU rate. Studentship(s) are available to UK and EU students who meet the UK residency requirements. Students from EU countries who do not meet residency requirements may still be eligible for a fees-only award.
This PhD project is part of the NERC funded Doctoral Training Partnership “ACCE” (Adapting to the Challenges of a Changing Environment), a partnership between the Universities of Sheffield, Liverpool, York and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Selection process: Shortlisting will take place as soon as possible after the closing date, and successful applicants will be notified promptly. Shortlisted applicants will be invited for an interview to take place at the University of Sheffield the w/c 12th February 2018.
Apply here. Deadline: Tuesday, January 09, 2018